What is Money Market?
The money market provides investment avenues of short term tenor. Money market transactions are generally used for funding the transactions in other markets including Government securities market and meeting short term liquidity mismatches. By definition, money market is for a maximum tenor of up to one year. Within the one year, depending upon the tenors, money market is classified into:
i. Overnight market - The tenor of transactions is one working day.
ii. Notice money market – The tenor of the transactions is from 2 days to 14 days.
iii. Term money market – The tenor of the transactions is from 15 days to one year.
What are the different money market instruments?
Money market instruments include call money, repos, Treasury bills, Commercial Paper, Certificate of Deposit and Collateralized Borrowing and Lending Obligations (CBLO).
Call money market
Call money market is a market for uncollateralized lending and borrowing of funds. This market is predominantly overnight and is open for participation only to scheduled commercial banks and the primary dealers.
Repo or ready forward contact is an instrument for borrowing funds by selling securities with an agreement to repurchase the said securities on a mutually agreed future date at an agreed price which includes interest for the funds borrowed.
The reverse of the repo transaction is called ‘reverse repo’ which is lending of funds against buying of securities with an agreement to resell the said securities on a mutually agreed future date at an agreed price which includes interest for the funds lent.
It can be seen from the definition above that there are two legs to the same transaction in a repo/ reverse repo. The duration between the two legs is called the ‘repo period’. Predominantly, repos are undertaken on overnight basis, i.e., for one day period. Settlement of repo transactions happens along with the outright trades in government securities.
The consideration amount in the first leg of the repo transactions is the amount borrowed by the seller of the security. On this, interest at the agreed ‘repo rate’ is calculated and paid along with the consideration amount of the second leg of the transaction when the borrower buys back the security. The overall effect of the repo transaction would be borrowing of funds backed by the collateral of Government securities.
The money market is regulated by the Reserve Bank of India. All the above mentioned money market transactions should be reported on the electronic platform called the Negotiated Dealing System (NDS).
As part of the measures to develop the corporate debt market, RBI has permitted select entities (scheduled commercial banks excluding RRBs and LABs, PDs, all-India FIs, NBFCs, mutual funds, housing finance companies, insurance companies) to undertake repo in corporate debt securities. This is similar to repo in Government securities except that corporate debt securities are used as collateral for borrowing funds. Only listed corporate debt securities that are rated ‘AA’ or above by the rating agencies are eligible to be used for repo. Commercial paper, certificate of deposit, non-convertible debentures of original maturity less than one year are not eligible for the purpose. These transactions take place in the OTC market and are required to be reported on FIMMDA platform within 15 minutes of the trade for dissemination of information. They are also to be reported on the clearing house of any of the exchanges for the purpose of clearing and settlement.
Collateralised Borrowing and Lending Obligation (CBLO)
CBLO is another money market instrument operated by the Clearing Corporation of India Ltd. (CCIL), for the benefit of the entities who have either no access to the inter bank call money market or have restricted access in terms of ceiling on call borrowing and lending transactions. CBLO is a discounted instrument available in electronic book entry form for the maturity period ranging from one day to ninety days (up to one year as per RBI guidelines). In order to enable the market participants to borrow and lend funds, CCIL provides the Dealing System through Indian Financial Network (INFINET), a closed user group to the Members of the Negotiated Dealing System (NDS) who maintain Current account with RBI and through Internet for other entities who do not maintain Current account with RBI.
Membership to the CBLO segment is extended to entities who are RBI- NDS members, viz., Nationalized Banks, Private Banks, Foreign Banks, Co-operative Banks, Financial Institutions, Insurance Companies, Mutual Funds, Primary Dealers, etc. Associate Membership to CBLO segment is extended to entities who are not members of RBI- NDS, viz., Co-operative Banks, Mutual Funds, Insurance companies, NBFCs, Corporates, Provident/ Pension Funds, etc.
By participating in the CBLO market, CCIL members can borrow or lend funds against the collateral of eligible securities. Eligible securities are Central Government securities including Treasury Bills, and such other securities as specified by CCIL from time to time. Borrowers in CBLO have to deposit the required amount of eligible securities with the CCIL based on which CCIL fixes the borrowing limits. CCIL matches the borrowing and lending orders submitted by the members and notifies them. While the securities held as collateral are in custody of the CCIL, the beneficial interest of the lender on the securities is recognized through proper documentation.
Commercial Paper (CP)
Commercial Paper (CP) is an unsecured money market instrument issued in the form of a promissory note. Corporates, primary dealers (PDs) and the all-India financial institutions (FIs) that have been permitted to raise short-term resources under the umbrella limit fixed by the Reserve Bank of India are eligible to issue CP. CP can be issued for maturities between a minimum of 7 days and a maximum up to one year from the date of issue.
Certificate of Deposit (CD)
Certificate of Deposit (CD) is a negotiable money market instrument and issued in dematerialised form or as a Usance Promissory Note, for funds deposited at a bank or other eligible financial institution for a specified time period. Banks can issue CDs for maturities from 7 days to one a year whereas eligible FIs can issue for maturities 1 year to 3 years.